Real knowledge about the cosmos (and its origin) must be given to us by God.

Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, and saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep; all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation.  (2nd Peter 3:3-4)


Notice the scoffer’s assumption  —  that “all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation”  —  yet that assumption is FALSE.  Just as the embryology of a baby human is not representative of how a born human grows and develops, the origin of our cosmos, during Creation Week (which wonderful week of mighty miracles preceded Adam’s sin in Eden), was not then experiencing natural processes that are typical of (i.e., commonplace in) the cosmos we now live in.  How fast did starlight travel before Adam sinned?  The real answer is that we don’t know  —  yet we do know that the starlight that God made during Creation Week did accomplish His declared purposes for that starlight, which purposes required distant starlight to be promptly visible to mankind on Earth.   (Of course, this is why we need an open Bible to know real truth!)

However, if some theorist imagines and assumes (with a closed Bible) that the original starlight was limited in its transmission velocity, to what we today call “the speed of light”, that theorist could easily (though wrongly) infer that visible starlight must be eons older than the humans on Earth who see that starlight, after it arrives, visually speaking.  (But that “speed-of-light-is-always-constant” assumption is wrong when applied to Day 4 of Creation Week, just as uniformitarian assumptions also clash with many other miracles done by God during other days of Creation Week.)

So how old are the galaxies, and all of the stars in those galaxies?  Since those stars (and galaxies) were formed on Day 4, during Creation Week, we cannot know how many years ago that was  —  unless and until God, the only Eye-witness, chooses to tell us.  And, thankfully, God has done just that — He has told us about the chronology of His creation — in the book of Genesis.

Consequently, we stumble in the dark, about the true age of creation, only if we ignore the divine revelation that God has graciously given unto us:  the Holy Bible.    The Bible provides us with lots of valuable truth about many topics, including cosmogonical topics  —  so the real question is what will we do with God’s truth?  Will we prioritize and rely upon it?  Or will we effectively displace it by relying upon Einstein’s relativity postulates (by transmogrifying a modern cosmology theory into a jake-leg cosmogony “history”), when doing so is illogical?  (Because there is no rational basis for assuming today’s speed-of-light “constant” was applicable, during Day 4 of Creation Week.)

If we assume–wrongly–that distant starlight is only allowed to travel as the current speed of light (which most physicists deem a constant velocity), even on Day 4 of Creation Week, we err by committing the Uniformitarian Fallacy.  (This same fallacy would lead us to err in guessing the true age of Adam, at the end of Day 6 of Creation Week.)

Biblical creationists (especially creationist astrophysicists, who all-too-often confuse cosmology, an empirical science  —  with cosmogony, a forensic science) have no excuse for committing the Uniformitarian Fallacy  —  especially because that irrational fallacy was prophesied by the apostle Peter, who warned us that scoffers would assume that present processes are (supposedly) the key to knowing about unique events that occurred in the no-longer-observable past.  [For more analysis of how distant starlight makes sense in a created-mature cosmos, see Don B. DeYoung, “Mature Creation and Seeing Distant Starlight”, JOURNAL OF CREATION, 24(3):54-59 (December 2010).  For more analysis regarding the indispensable need for reliable eyewitness testimony, in forensic science, see James J. S. Johnson, “Genesis Critics Flunk Forensic Science 101”, ACTS & FACTS, 41(3):8-9 (March 2012), posted at   —  and “What Good Are Experts?”, ACTS & FACTS, 41(3):8-9 (March 2012), posted at .]



Dr. James J. S. Johnson

Deists pegged Earth’s years in the millions

Many stretch that, today, to the billions   —

Dismissing Day 4,

God’s Word they ignore,

Thus erring by margins of billions.


Assuming light’s speed stays the same,

The year-count’s a wild guessing-game;

But Day 4’s light-speed

Is what God decreed  —

And not what it later became.


Light’s speed, now, is not “key to the past”,

Since, on Day 4, it sped super-fast;

It flashed then, in an instant —

Yet its speed, now, is constant;

Displaying God’s power, unsurpassed!

Real knowledge about the cosmos, and especially about it origins, can only be learned by starting with God’s gifts of revelation – both Scripture and Scripture-based science – if we are serious about learning the truth about the cosmos. (See Psalm 19; Hebrews 11:3; John 5:44-47.)   But, in order to avoid the Uniformitarian Fallacy, we must carefully remember that it is holy Scripture (which provides us with true information from our infinite and perfect God) that informs our “science” (which is limited by our finite and imperfect knowledge-base).

Truly, the Heavens declare the glory of God” (Psalm 19:1a)!


A Secret Agent Recalls How RAF Bombers Sunk the TIRPITZ, Illustrating the Need for Reliable Eye-Witnesses, for Knowledge about Past Events

A Secret Agent Recalls How RAF Bombers Sunk the TIRPITZ,  Illustrating the Need for Reliable Eye-Witnesses, for Knowledge about Past Events

James J. S. Johnson, JD, ThD, CIHE, CNHG


How was the German battleship Tirpitz sunk, during World War II?(1)   Also, regarding a completely different part of world history, how can we accurately explain the etiology of fossils, as the remains of once-living creatures from earlier epochs of Earth history?

To know the certainty of historic facts, especially non-repeating events that are no longer observable to us (or to anyone else), must we have an eye-witness report?  In a word, yesthis is basic forensic science.

After the fact, historic causes routinely leave behind physical effects, often with observable characteristics (such as fingerprints, tire or shoe tread impressions, blood spatter patterns, nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, etc.) that can provide reliable inferences about what occurred, earlier, at a specific location.(2)

Yet what is the underlying “bread and butter” of forensic science?

Carefully examining physical effects in the present (perhaps with a magnifying glass, like Sherlock Holmes, or with more advanced technology), produced by physical causes of the past, is extremely helpful for learning about past events.

However, for complete accuracy, there is nothing that adequately substitutes for a reliable eye-witness. Reliable eye-witnesses can report relevant observations of past events—about who, what, where, when, how, and why—verifiable clues needed for understanding or solving a mystery about what really happened, including “whodunit”.   (To be “reliable” a witness must be competent, honest, accurate, able to observe what occurred (and observant about what is observable), able to remember what was witnessed, and able to report it with perspicuity and relevant detail.)  Sometimes an eye-witness report provides “minor” details of information that has “major” ramifications for reconstructing a series of causally related occurrences.(2),(3)

Eye-witness reliability relies upon honesty, opportunity to observe, accurate memory, and accuracy in reporting observations. These forensic evidence principles apply to the challenging tasks of reconstructing unique events of the past, because past events (unless recorded) can’t be seen in the present — whether those events occurred during a war, or during a global flood.


In a chapter titled “The Formidable Tirpitz Succumbs”, of her WWII history book SILENT PATRIOT, historian Astrid Karlsen Scott summarizes Tirpitz’s sinking, with emphasis on the role of Norwegian resistance fighters (i.e., spies and saboteurs).

Mrs. Scott’s history was reviewed by a Norwegian immigrant friend, Tromsø native Mimi Fossum, who served in the Norwegian resistance as a teen-aged spy during World War II.  Concurring with the book’s overall accuracy, Mrs. Fossum recalled how the Tirpitz‘s “ammunition storage” was bombed by British Lancasters [on Sunday, November 12th of AD1944] that “snuck thru a gap in the mountains,” after a prior attack by Lancaster bombers had braved a “wall” of anti-aircraft fire, without a “good hit”.(1),(4)

Mrs. Fossum ended her handwritten memoir with: I know. I was there.”(4)  Of course, some of what happened then (fall of AD1944), to the Tirpitz and nearby, could be inferred from physical effects (e.g., Tallboy bomb craters on land or under the sea) of the repeated bombings there. However, as in all forensic investigations, for some facts you need a reliable eye-witness.(3)

But what about the mixture of oceanic/tidewater animals, found in fossiliferous rock layers, that also contain land-roaming dinosaur remains? Why are land-based reptiles sometimes found buried in mud together with the likes of squid, shrimp, mussels, lobsters, scallops, oysters, clams, sturgeon, flounder, herring, and orange roughy fish?

Physical evidence can provide part of the explanation – but only part. To make adequate sense of the now-observable “what” there needs to be some kind of reliable eye-witness report on the no-longer-observable “how”.(5)

So, can we know what caused such physical effects, observable today in sedimentary rock layers? In a word, yes—but only if we rely on Genesis chapters 6-9, the perspicuous and inerrant report given – to us – by the global Flood’s only perfectly reliable eye-witness, God Himself.(6)

><>  JJSJ


(1) See Astrid Karlsen Scott, Silent Patriot: Norway’s Most Highly Decorated WWII Soldier and Secret Agent (Nordic Adventures, 2004), pages 203-206. See also and (YouTube footage regarding the supposedly “unsinkable” Tirpitz).

(2) James J. S. Johnson, “Is the Present the ‘Key’ to Our Past?” Acts & Facts, 43(6):19
(June 2014), posted at . See also, accord, Jim Fraser, Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2010), pages 1-32.

(3) James J. S. Johnson, “Mystic Mystery: Scientists Investigate Connecticut’s Pequot War Battlefield”, presented at the Creation Research Society Conference (Dallas, Texas), July 31, 2015, posted at .

(4) Personal correspondence from Mimi Fossum, Tromsø (Norway) native, whose attention to visual detail is demonstrated by her many Norwegian rosemåling paintings.  Mrs. Fossum formerly belonged to the Viking chapter of the Norwegian Society of Texas (“NST”); now she belongs to Snorre chapter of NST.  It was my privilege, a few years ago, to be tutored in Norwegian rosemåling painting by Mimi Fossum (see example of my painting below).


(5) Brian Thomas, “Mesozoic Seafood Menu Caters to Noah’s Flood”, Acts & Facts, 45(10):15 (October 2016).

(6) John 5:44-47 & 17:17; 2 Peter 3:1-7. Regarding the importance of eye-witness testimony, see also Acts 1:3; 1 Corinthians 15; 2 Peter 1:16-21; 1 John 1:1-3.